Can you make a claim without evidence?

“That which can be asserted without evidence, can be dismissed without evidence.” – Christopher Hitchens [closed]

What may be asserted without evidence may be dismissed without evidence?

Hitchens’s razor puts it, “what may be asserted without evidence, may be dismissed without evidence.” Carl Sagan added the Sagan standard: “extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence.” You can accept the evidence or, if you do not find the evidence convincing, it is your burden to explain why.

What does Razor mean in Occam’s Razor?

Razors include: Occam’s razor: Simpler explanations are more likely to be correct; avoid unnecessary or improbable assumptions.

Who said Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence?

In 1979 astronomer Carl Sagan popularized the aphorism “extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence” (ECREE). But Sagan never defined the term “extraordinary.” Ambiguity in what constitutes “extraordinary” has led to misuse of the aphorism.

What is a logical razor?

In philosophy, a razor is a principle or rule of thumb that allows one to eliminate (“shave off”) unlikely explanations for a phenomenon, or avoid unnecessary actions. Occam’s razor: Simpler explanations are more likely to be correct; avoid unnecessary or improbable assumptions.

Who has the burden of proof in science?

Scientific evidence usually goes towards supporting or rejecting a hypothesis. The burden of proof is on the person making a contentious claim. Within science, this translates to the burden resting on presenters of a paper, in which the presenters argue for their specific findings.

What is a negative claim?

Negative claims are statements that assert the non-existence or exclusion of something. Negative claims are assumed to be true so long as no evidence is presented to prove the claim false.

What is an example of an extraordinary claim?

The history of medical science is full of examples of extraordinary claims that turned out to be correct. “Water is full of bugs too small to see” was dismissed as the ravings of a madman — until enough biologists had a chance to a look through a microscope for themselves.

Do Extraordinary claims really require extraordinary evidence?

The answer: No. Carl Sagan is credited with popularizing the dictum “Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence” during an episode of his groundbreaking TV series Cosmos. In the extreme case, if you know nothing, then everything is an extraordinary claim.