Are aflatoxins and mycotoxins the same?

Aflatoxins are amongst the most poisonous mycotoxins and are produced by certain moulds (Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus) which grow in soil, decaying vegetation, hay, and grains. Ochratoxin A is produced by several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium and is a common food-contaminating mycotoxin.

Does aflatoxin cause cancer?

Exposure to aflatoxins is associated with an increased risk of liver cancer.

Are mycotoxins carcinogens?

Preformed mycotoxins are ingested by man through the consumption of vegetable and animal products (milk, meat, etc.). Factors affecting toxicity include species, age, sex, and nutrition. Evidence from animal experiments provides enough information to indicate that most of the mycotoxins are carcinogens.

What type of cancer can aflatoxin cause?

Chronic low-level exposure to aflatoxins, particularly aflatoxin B1, is associated with increased risk of developing liver cancer, impaired immune function, and malnutrition. Acute high-level exposure, which is less common, causes early symptoms of diminished appetite, malaise, and low fever.

What foods are high in mycotoxins?

Mycotoxins appear in almost all kinds of animal feed and products such as wheat bran, noug cake, pea hulls, maize grain, milk and meat, and also human food such as cereal, fruit and vegetables, spice, etc. [5]. Consuming these foods creates serious health risks in human and all animal species.

How do you remove aflatoxin?

The most common way to remove AFB1 using physical methods is to heat and use gamma rays. Aflatoxins are highly thermostable. Studies have shown that AFB1 levels are significantly reduced by heating at 100 and 150°C for 90 minutes, respectively, at 41.9 and 81.2%.

How do I get rid of mycotoxins in the air?

Extreme heat (fire at 500°F for half-hour) can destroy trichothecene mycotoxins. Ozone can kill most mycotoxins, but the level needed is not safe for humans. HEPA air filters need to be supplemented with activated carbon filters. Ultraviolet light or freezing temperatures have little effect on trichothecene.

What’s the difference between aflatoxin and mycotoxin?

Moreover, there are four types of aflatoxins as B1, B2, G1 and G2 while there are many different types of mycotoxins including aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, patulin, fumonisins, zearalenone and nivalenol/deoxynivalenol, etc. Therefore, we can consider this also as a difference between aflatoxin and mycotoxin.

How are mycotoxins related to cancer and astrocytomas?

Mycotoxins are Found in a Large Percentage of Cancers Cancer Type Instances Type of Mycotoxin Present Type of Mycotoxin Present Astrocytomas 9/13 Ochratoxin Aflatoxin Breast 3/3 Ochratoxin — ALS 1/1 — Aflatoxin Mesothelioma 1/1 Ochratoxin

How are aflatoxins harmful to humans and animals?

Large doses of aflatoxins can lead to acute poisoning (aflatoxicosis) and can be life threatening, usually through damage to the liver. Aflatoxins have also been shown to be genotoxic, meaning they can damage DNA and cause cancer in animal species.

Which is the most potent form of aflatoxin?

Moreover, there are four major types of aflatoxins: B1, B2, G1, and G2. Among them, aflatoxin B1 is the most potent natural carcinogen. Aflatoxicosis is the state acute poisoning of aflatoxins, which can cause liver damages. Moreover, they can damage DNA and can cause cancers such as liver cancers.