How do you calculate aggregate output?

The equation Y = Y ad = C + I + G + NX tells us that aggregate output (or aggregate income) is equal to aggregate demand, which in turn is equal to consumer expenditure plus investment (planned, physical stuff) plus government spending plus net exports (exports – imports).

What is equilibrium aggregate output?

The equilibrium in the diagram occurs where the aggregate expenditure line crosses the 45-degree line, which represents the set of points where aggregate expenditure in the economy is equal to output, or national income. Equilibrium in a Keynesian cross diagram can happen at potential GDP—or below or above that level.

What is the equilibrium level of planned aggregate spending?

In the aggregate expenditures model, equilibrium is found at the level of real GDP at which the aggregate expenditures curve crosses the 45-degree line. It follows that a shift in the curve will change equilibrium real GDP.

How do you calculate the equilibrium level of aggregate output?

Most simply, the formula for the equilibrium level of income is when aggregate supply (AS) is equal to aggregate demand (AD), where AS = AD. Adding a little complexity, the formula becomes Y = C + I + G, where Y is aggregate income, C is consumption, I is investment expenditure, and G is government expenditure.

What is increase in aggregate output of goods and services?

In the long-run, increases in aggregate demand cause the output and price of a good or service to increase. In the long-run, the aggregate supply is affected only by capital, labor, and technology.

What is the equilibrium rate of output?

Output is at its equilibrium when quantity of output produced (AS) is equal to quantity demanded (AD). The economy is in equilibrium when aggregate demand represented by C + I is equal to total output.

How do you find equilibrium output in a closed economy?

The closed-economy identity for total spending implies I + G = Y – C, and the identity for saving implies S + T = Y – C, so that I + G = S + T. This yields the equilibrium condition: I(r) = SFE + T – G = full-employment national saving.

Why is income curve 45 degrees?

The reason why these diagrams have this 45-degree line is that for every point on the line, the value of whatever is being measured on the x-axis is equal to the value of whatever is being measured on the y-axis. Equilibrium national income occurs where Y = E, and this would be every point on the 45 degree line.

What happens if output is above equilibrium?

If output was above the equilibrium level, at H, then the real output is greater than the aggregate expenditure in the economy. This pattern cannot hold, because it would mean that goods are produced but piling up unsold. Firms will respond by increasing their level of production.

When does the aggregate supply curve reach equilibrium?

The Aggregate Supply curve is horizontal until it reaches the point of full employment, where it becomes vertical. At AD1, the output is below full employment. There is a deflationary gap, between AD* and AD1 on the vertical AS curve, which means that equilibrium output is less than full employment.

How is equilibrium determined in the AD-as model?

In other words, the intersection of aggregate demand (AD) and short-run aggregate supply (SRAS) determines the short-run equilibrium output and price level. Once we have a short-run equilibrium output, we can then compare it to the full employment output to figure out where in the business cycle we are.

When is an economy in short run equilibrium?

Short-run equilibrium An economy is in short-run equilibrium when the aggregate amount of output demanded is equal to the aggregate amount of output supplied. In the AD-AS model, you can find the short-run equilibrium by finding the point where AD intersects SRAS. The equilibrium consists of the equilibrium price level and the equilibrium output.

Which is the short run equilibrium of SRAs and ad?

The short-run equilibrium is the point where SRAS and AD intersect, which yields as the current output and as the current price level. Notice two things about this. First, is equal to, which means that the economy is producing exactly its full employment output and is in long-run equilibrium.