What is the purpose of tetramethylammonium hydroxide in ferrofluid?

Tetramethylammonium hydroxide is a stabilizing ligand that is used to keep the nanoparticles in solution and from sticking to each other. That is, it adheres to the particles creating a net repulsion between them so the particles do not agglomerate. In the absence of a stabilizing agent the particles will agglomerate.

Is tetramethylammonium hydroxide a strong base?

TMAH is a strong base; the 25% solution in water has a pH of greater than 13. The odor of TMAH has been described as a strong, ammonia-like smell.

How do you make ferrofluid with magnetite?

Pour a bit of vegetable oil into a shallow dish, just enough to make a thin film across the bottom. Pour iron filings into the oil and mix the two until they have become a thick, sludge-like material. This is your ferrofluid! Use a napkin to absorb any excess oil and allow the ferrofluid to become thicker.

What are ferrofluids used for?

Ferrofluid is used in rotary seals in computer hard drives and other rotating shaft motors, and in loudspeakers to dampen vibrations. In medicine, ferrofluid is used as a contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Can liquids be magnetic?

However, it is possible to “magnetize” ordinary liquids by dispersing into them very fine magnetic particles. The resulting liquid becomes a homogeneous magnetic material, just like a solid, but it retains its fluid characteristics.

How should you dispose of tetramethylammonium hydroxide?

Soak up with inert absorbent material and dispose of as hazardous waste. Keep in suitable, closed containers for disposal. For disposal see section 13. Avoid contact with skin and eyes.

What is the meaning TMAH?

Tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH or TMAOH) is a quaternary ammonium salt with the molecular formula N(CH3)4+ OH−. It is commonly encountered as concentrated solutions in water or methanol. The solid and solutions are colorless, or yellowish if impure.

Is ferrofluid electrically conductive?

The ferrofluid composition generally has an electrical conductivity of volume resistivity of about 10 3 ohm-cm or less, such as about 100 ohm-cm at 25° C. or less.

What liquid is magnetized?

Ferrofluid is a liquid that is attracted to the poles of a magnet. It is a colloidal liquid made of nanoscale ferromagnetic, or ferrimagnetic, particles suspended in a carrier fluid (usually an organic solvent or water). Each magnetic particle is thoroughly coated with a surfactant to inhibit clumping.

Why does tetramethylammonium hydroxide stabilize a ferrofluid?

Without tetramethylammonium hydroxide as a surfactant, magnetite nanoparticles tend to aggregate due to van der Waals forces. Therefore, it is critical to have the appropriate surfactant to stabilize an aqueous ferrofluid. In this experiment, students will learn that these forces are responsible for the formation of ferrofluid.

How is tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide a surfactant?

The tetramethyl-ammonium hydroxide surfactant used in this experiment is composed of two charged species, (CH3)4N+ and -OH. The hydroxide anions adhere to the surface of magnetite particles, and these negative charges attract their counter ions, tetramethylammonium cations, forming a positively charged outer shell.

What is tetramethylammonium hydroxide used for?

Tetramethylammonium Hydroxide (TMAH) manufactured by SACHEM is of the highest quality available worldwide. TMAH is a quaternary ammonium compound (Quat) that is used in the manufacturing of integrated circuits, flat panel displays, printed circuit boards, capacitors, sensors, and many other electronic components.

How is Tetramethylammonium fluoride prepared in TMAH?

TMAH undergoes simple acid-base reactions with strong or weak acids to produce tetramethylammonium salts whose anion is derived from the acid. Illustrative is preparation of tetramethylammonium fluoride: