How many female athletes are intersex?

World Athletics says intersex women like Semenya, who have XY male chromosomes instead of XX female ones, account for 7.1 in every 1,000 elite female athletes, or 140 times more than in the general population, with a still higher podium presence.

Was Castor Semenya born a female?

Ga-masehlong, South Africa
Caster Semenya/Place of birth

How is Caster Semenya different?

Difference of sex development Semenya, now 29, has hyperandrogenism – a genetic condition that makes her body produce higher levels of testosterone. Semenya’s condition results from what is known as difference of sex development (DSD).

Can female athletes take testosterone?

The new IAAF regulations require women with testosterone levels in the male range to medically reduce them to be allowed to compete, however the fairness and morality of these rules have been challenged by human rights and academic experts.

What is intersex athletes?

Intersex athletes are vulnerable to exclusion from women’s sports, as well as ridicule and invasion of privacy. Intersex conditions may also affect internal or external sex characteristics, such as cases when an individual’s genitalia at birth defies easy classification as male or female.

How do I know if I’m intersex?


  1. Ambiguous genitalia at birth.
  2. Micropenis.
  3. Clitoromegaly (an enlarged clitoris)
  4. Partial labial fusion.
  5. Apparently undescended testes (which may turn out to be ovaries) in boys.
  6. Labial or inguinal (groin) masses (which may turn out to be testes) in girls.

What is the testosterone limit for female athletes?

In 2015, the IOC ruled that transgender athletes who identify as female could compete on female teams if their testosterone levels were below ten nanomoles per liter for at least 12 months before the competition. In 2019, World Athletics lowered the maximum level to five nanomoles per liter.

What is the average testosterone level for a female?

Normal Results Male: 300 to 1,000 nanograms per deciliter (ng/dL) or 10 to 35 nanomoles per liter (nmol/L) Female: 15 to 70 ng/dL or 0.5 to 2.4 nmol/L.