What is the most common type of infection in a child with a newly placed VP shunt?

Shunt Infections The most common infecting organism is Staphylococcus epidermidis (60%), followed by S. aureus (30%). A shunt infection tends to manifest within the first month of shunt insertion and almost never later than 6 months after surgery.

Can a VP shunt get infected?

Shunt infection rates per patient range from 10% to 22% and around 6.0% per procedure, with 90% of infections occurring within 30 days of surgery (Vinchon, Dhellemmes 2006, Duhaime 2006, Vinchon et al. 2003).

What are the 2 most serious complications of children who have VP shunts?

Obstruction is the most common cause of ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) malfunction. Infection is the second most common cause of VPS malfunction, which is more common in children. Pseudocyst is a late complication of VPS, which may present as abdominal pain and a palpable mass.

What are the primary signs of a shunt infection?

The symptoms of a shunt infection may include:

  • redness and tenderness along the line of the shunt.
  • a high temperature.
  • headache.
  • vomiting.
  • neck stiffness.
  • tummy pain if the shunt drains into your tummy.
  • irritability or sleepiness in babies.

What are the signs of a VP shunt malfunction?

Shunt Malfunction Signs

  • Headaches.
  • Vomiting.
  • Lethargy (sleepiness)
  • Irritability.
  • Swelling or redness along the shunt tract.
  • Decreased school performance.
  • Periods of confusion.
  • Seizures.

How do you know if a VP shunt is malfunctioning?

Symptoms of a shunt malfunction may be obvious, redness over the shunt, headache, sleepiness, vomiting, or visual changes. Symptoms may also be subtle, change in behavior, change in school performance.

How often do VP shunts fail?

Failure rates are quoted as 30-40% at 1 year and 50% at 2 years in the paediatric cohort. A patient can expect to have 2-3 shunt revisions over the course of 20 years and the median time to shunt failure is just 1 and a half years. Paediatric revisions are more commonplace than adult revisions.

What are the symptoms of VP shunt Overdrainage?

Symptoms of overdrainage often include headache and are similar to the symptoms of underdrainage (hydrocephalus). Underdrainage occurs when CSF is not removed quickly, fluid builds up in the ventricles and the symptoms of hydrocephalus recur.

What happens if you have a VP shunt infection?

A shunt infection happens when bacteria get in the area around the VP shunt. When this happens, the shunt can stop working properly. This can let pressure build up in your child’s brain. The pressure can damage your child’s brain or even be life threatening.

How is a shunt infection treated in an adult?

Shunt infection is treated identically in the adult and the child. Suspicion for shunt infection is based on clinical presentation and CSF cultures. In our hands, there is a higher yield for positive culture in the setting of infection from fluid obtained directly by shunt tap than for that obtained by a lumbar puncture.

Can a VP shunt be differential in an unwell child?

FBC and CRP may help in elucidating infection/ shunt dysfunction. In any unwell child with a VP shunt, shunt dysfunction must be a differential and not excluded until proven otherwise – early consultation with the neurosurgical team is advised if suspected.

How does a VP shunt help a child with hydrocephalus?

A VP shunt is a long plastic tube that lets fluid drain from the brain to another part of the body. This keeps pressure from building up on the brain when your child has hydrocephalus.