What is phase inversion temperature method?

The phase inversion temperature (PIT), at which an oil-in-water emulsion becomes a water-in-oil emulsion, is a crucial process parameter. The higher the phase inversion temperature, the more stable is the oil-in-water emulsion at ambient temperature [l].

What is nanoemulsion technology?

Nanoemulsions are a colloidal particulate system in the submicron size range acting as carriers of drug molecules. Their size varies from 10 to 1,000 nm. An emulsion is a biphasic system in which one phase is intimately dispersed in the other phase in the form of minute droplets ranging in diameter from 0.1 to 100 μm.

What is phase inversion emulsion?

Phase inversion refers to a phenomenon that occurs when agitated oil in water emulsion, reverts to a water in oil and vice versa. Phase inversion process leads to the formation of finely dispersed droplets in a continuous phase.

How do you make a nanoemulsion?

The nanoemulsion can be prepared by both high energy and low energy methods. High energy method includes high-pressure homogenization, microfluidization, and ultrasonication whereas low energy methods include the phase inversion emulsification method and the self-nanoemulsification method.

What is the reason for phase inversion?

Phase inversion can be induced by shifting the emulsifier affinity from one phase to the other, which is called transitional phase inversion. It can also be triggered by a change in the water-to-oil ratio of the emulsion, which leads to a process known as catastrophic phase inversion.

Is phase inversion reversible?

The reversible phase inversion of the emulsion has a benefit of dealing with drilling cutting, so the reversible invert emulsion also can be thought used as a drilling fluid. The phase inversion from w/o emulsion to o/w emulsion can be divided into three stages. They are w/o emulsion, w/o/w emulsion, and o/w emulsion.

Why nanoemulsions are thermodynamically unstable?

6 Nanoemulsions. Nanoemulsions are thermodynamically unstable systems, in contrast to microemulsions, because some nanoemulsions need significant energy to be formed. Three methods are most often used to prepare nanoemulsions: high-pressure homogenization, microfluidization, and phase-inversion temperature method.

Is nanoemulsion thermodynamically stable?

The thermodynamic stability of a particular system is governed by the change in free energy between it and an appropriate reference state. Nanoemulsion is thermodynamically unstable, which means that the free energy of nanoemulsion is higher than the free energy of the separate phases (oil and water).

How do you stabilize a nanoemulsion?

The stabilization of nanoemulsions, nanosized oil droplets dispersed in water, is commonly achieved through the addition of surfactants and polymers.

What is microemulsion method?

Microemulsion polymerization is a complex heterogeneous process where transport of monomers, free radicals and other species (such as chain transfer agent, co-surfactant and inhibitors) between the aqueous and organic phases, takes place.

What is called inversion of phase?

Phase inversion or phase separation is a chemical phenomenon exploited in the fabrication of artificial membranes. It is performed by removing the solvent from a liquid-polymer solution, leaving a porous, solid membrane.

How are nanoemulsions prepared by phase inversion temperature?

They can be classified as spontaneous emulsification (SE), phase inversion composition (PIC) and phase inversion temperature (PIT)22,23. Differences and similarities between emulsions, Recently, there has been growing interest in producing nanoemulsions using low-energy methods because they need no expensive equipment and are more energy efficient.

Which is the best method to prepare a nanoemulsion?

High and low energy methods are used to prepare nanoemulsions, including high pressure homogenization, ultrasonication, phase inversion temperature and emulsion inversion point, as well as recently developed approaches such as bubble bursting method.

How are nanoemulsions selected for the ternary phase diagram?

Nanoemulsions formulated were based on the phase inversion composition technique (low energy method) and were selected from the ternary phase diagram based on the criterion of their being a minimum concentration of S mixused in the formulation. For high-pressure homogenization

Which is an example of a low energy phase inversion?

Phase inversion temperature (PIT)16and emulsion inversion point (EIP)17–19are two examples of low energy approaches for the formation of nanoemulsions.