What are GLP-2 medications?

Glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-2 analogs are a class of drugs used for the prevention or treatment of patients with short bowel syndrome (SBS) who need intravenous nutrition and fluids.

Where is GLP-2 produced?

intestinal endocrine L cell
GLP-2 is produced by the intestinal endocrine L cell and by various neurons in the central nervous system. Intestinal GLP-2 is co-secreted along with GLP-1 upon nutrient ingestion.

Is GLP-2 a hormone?

Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is an intestinotrophic hormone, secreted by enteroendocrine L cells of the intestinal epithelium. It has been shown to increase epithelial proliferation, inhibit apoptosis, enhance barrier function, and increase digestion, absorption, and blood flow15,16,17,18,19,20.

What is short gut syndrome?

Overview. Short bowel syndrome is a condition in which your body is unable to absorb enough nutrients from the foods you eat because you don’t have enough small intestine. The small intestine is where the majority of the nutrients you eat are absorbed into your body during digestion.

Is GLP 2 an incretin?

GLP1 is part of the incretin system, which mainly comprises intestinal peptides associated with increased insulin secretion in response to food intake1.

What type of hormone is GLP-1?

Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a physiological incretin hormone from the lower gastrointestinal tract, partially explaining the augmented insulin response after oral compared to intravenous glucose administration in normal humans.

Can intestinal failure be cured?

There is no cure, but the disorder usually can be treated effectively. However, in some cases, short bowel syndrome can lead to severe, disabling and life-threatening complications. Short bowel syndrome is most commonly associated with the surgical removal (resection) of half or more of the small intestine.

How long can you live with short gut?

Data from leading transplant centers have shown that the 1-year survival rates can be as high as 80-90%, and approximately 60% of patients are alive at 4 years.

What is the role of DPP-4 in GLP-2?

The N-terminal two aa residues are cleaved off by DPP-4, and the amino-terminally truncated GLP-2 fragment, GLP-2 (3–33), acts as a competitive antagonist of the GLP-2 receptor, inhibiting nutrient- and GLP-2-induced mucosal growth in rodents. All placental mammalian GLP-2 sequences differ from reptilian or avian sequences at 14–18 residues.

Where is GLP-2 located in the human body?

Human GLP-2: Mr 3,766.1, theoretical pI 4.17. GLP-2 is 33 amino acids long and is located following GLP-1 on their common gene ( Fig. 2 ). Tissue-specific posttranslational processing results in the production of GLP-2 in the intestine and brain but not the pancreas.

Which is a weak agonist of the GLP-2 receptor?

Although, GLP-2 (3-33) may act as a weak agonist at pharmacological concentrations ( Shin et al., 2005 ); it is however able to act as a competitive antagonist of the GLP-2 receptor (GLP2R) in rodents ( Thulesen et al., 2002; Shin et al., 2005; Baldassano et al., 2009, 2013 ).

Which is better apraglutide or GLP-2?

Apraglutide showed greater intestinotrophic activity than the other peptides when administered at less-frequent dosing intervals because of its prolonged half-life. We postulate that apraglutide offers several advantages over existing GLP-2 analogs and is an excellent candidate for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases, such as SBS.