What is the density of Bose-Einstein condensate?
To quote from the text (pg 1, 2nd ed.): The particle density at the centre of a Bose-Einstein condensed atomic cloud is typically 10^13–10^15 cm^−3 . By contrast, the density of molecules in air at room temperature and atmospheric pressure is about 10^19 cm−3 .
Is Bose-Einstein condensate denser than solid?
Bose-Einstein Basics When you hear the word condensate, think about condensation and the way gas molecules come together and condense and to a liquid. The molecules get denser or packed closer together. If plasmas are super hot and super excited atoms, the atoms in a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) are total opposites.
What is an ideal Bose gas?
An ideal Bose gas is a quantum-mechanical phase of matter, analogous to a classical ideal gas. It is composed of bosons, which have an integer value of spin, and obey Bose–Einstein statistics. This condensate is known as a Bose–Einstein condensate.
What are the properties of Bose-Einstein condensate?
The most obvious property of a BEC is that a large fraction of its particles occupy the same, namely the lowest, energy state. In atomic condensates this can be confirmed by measuring the velocity distribution of the atoms in the gas.
What’s the fifth state of matter?
Sometimes referred to as the ‘fifth state of matter’, a Bose-Einstein Condensate is a state of matter created when particles, called bosons, are cooled to near absolute zero (-273.15 degrees Celsius, or -460 degrees Fahrenheit).
What is a photon gas?
In physics, a photon gas is a gas-like collection of photons, which has many of the same properties of a conventional gas like hydrogen or neon – including pressure, temperature, and entropy. The most common example of a photon gas in equilibrium is the black-body radiation.
What is the 5 states of matter?
We look at five states of matter on the site. Solids, liquids, gases, plasmas, and Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) are different states of matter that have different physical properties. Solids are often hard, liquids fill containers, and gases surround us in the air. Each of these states is also known as a phase.
How is the thermodynamics of a Bose gas calculated?
At low enough particle number density and temperature, both the Fermi gas and the Bose gas behave like a classical ideal gas . The thermodynamics of an ideal Bose gas is best calculated using the grand canonical ensemble. The grand partition function for a Bose gas is given by:
Is there a Bose gas in two dimensions?
In 1991 a theoretical proof was made that a Bose gas can exist in two dimensions. In the same work an experimental recommendation was made that could verify the hypothesis.
How to calculate density of States in 2D structure?
For calculating the density of states for a 2D structure (i.e. quantum well), we can use a similar approach, the previous equations change to the following: k-space volume of single state cube in k-space: k-space volume of sphere in k-space: − = 2 2 2 sin a b VL V glestate π π ππ Vk2
Which is the form of ideal Bose gas?
IDEAL BOSE GAS Except for the extra term on the right-hand side, and for an exchange g5/2↔ f5/2, it has the same form as the expression (13.6) for the Fermi gas. Pressure. From Ω = −PV and (14.7) we get βP = 2s+1 λ3 g5/2(z) , (14.8) in analogy to (13.7). Particle density.