Which drugs are nucleoside analogs?
Actually, nucleoside analogues are a large class of agents that include drugs for cancer (cytarabine, gemcitabine, mercaptopurine, azacytidine, cladribine, decitabine, fluorouracil, floxuridine, fludarabine, nelarabine), and rheumatologic diseases (azathioprine, allopurinol) and even bacterial infections (trimethoprim) …
How do nucleotide analogues work as antiviral drugs?
Antiviral nucleotides are nucleotide analogs that repress the viral reproduction by interfering with several key mechanisms of viral nucleic acid replication. They compete with natural dNTP/NTP substrates for the incorporation into the nascent viral nucleic acid thereby leading to chain termination or mutagenesis (Tab.
What is nucleotide analog prodrug?
TAF, a prodrug form of the nucleotide analogue viral polymerase inhibitor Tenofovir (TFV), shows potent activity for HIV and HBV but only limited inhibition of host nuclear and mitochondrial polymerases.(21,22) It is activated by a series of hydrolases to the deprotected monophosphate form, TFV, and then by two …
Is zidovudine a nucleoside analogue?
Zidovudine is a Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor (NRTI), thymidine nucleoside analog. It is converted to the active form through intracellular triphosphorylation.
What is the name of the nucleoside?
Nucleosides—adenosine, guanosine, thymidine, and cytidine—are the terms given to the combination of base and sugar.
What is a synthetic nucleoside?
14. Nucleoside analogs are synthetic, chemically modified nucleosides that mimic their physiological counterparts (endogenous nucleosides) and block cellular division or viral replication by impairment DNA/RNA synthesis or by inhibition of cellular or viral enzymes involved in nucleoside/tide metabolism (Figure 1).
Which antiviral drug is thymidine analog?
Introduction. A thymidine analog that inhibits DNA polymerase activity, trifluridine is an antiviral drug used primarily as a treatment of Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV-1 and HSV-2) and vaccinia virus [Drug Facts and Comparison (2001)].
Is Remdesivir a nucleoside analog?
Remdesivir is a nucleoside analog, one of the oldest classes of antiviral drugs. It works by blocking the RNA polymerase that coronaviruses and related RNA viruses need to replicate their genomes and proliferate in the host body. Remdesivir resembles the RNA base adenosine, shown here as a monophosphate.
What are the examples of nucleoside?
Examples of nucleosides include cytidine, uridine, guanosine, inosine thymidine, and adenosine. A beta-glycosidic bond binds the 3′ position of the pentose sugar to the nitrogenous base. Nucleosides are used as anticancer and antiviral agents.
How are nucleoside analogs related to other drugs?
Related drugs are nucleobase analogs, which don’t include a sugar or sugar analog, and nucleotide analogues, which also include phosphate groups. Nucleoside antibiotics are a class of antibiotics that inhibit the Mray enzyme in peptidoglycan biosynthesis pathway of mycobacteria, gram positive and gram negative strains.
What are the analogs of guanosine and deoxyguanosine?
guanosine and deoxyguanosine analogues: abacavir (HIV) aciclovir entecavir (hepatitis B) 1 abacavir (HIV) 2 aciclovir 3 entecavir (hepatitis B)
How are purine analogues used as antineoplastic agents?
The purine analogues used as antineoplastic agents are a group of agents with similar structures, but somewhat different mechanisms of action, pharmacokinetics, indications and adverse effects.
Are there any nucleoside analogues for reverse transcriptase?
There is a large family of nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors, because DNA production by reverse transcriptase is very different from normal human DNA replication, so it is possible to design nucleoside analogues that are preferentially incorporated by the former.