What is testicular embryonal carcinoma?
Embryonal carcinomas are located in the testicular parenchyma. These tumors are usually smaller than seminomas. They do not replace the entire testis but have a propensity to invade paratesticular tissue (through the tunica albuginea), rete testis, and epididymis. Vascular invasion is common.
Is embryonal carcinoma cancerous?
Embryonal carcinoma is a type of testicular cancer, which is cancer that starts in the testicles, the male reproductive glands located in the scrotum. It most often develops in young and middle-aged men. It tends to grow rapidly and spread outside the testicle.
Which testicular carcinoma is the most aggressive?
Embryonal carcinoma: present in about 40 percent of tumors and among the most rapidly growing and potentially aggressive tumor types. Embryonal carcinoma can secrete HCG or alpha fetoprotein (AFP).
How is embryonal carcinoma treated?
For teratoma, no additional treatment is given after RPLND. For seminoma, embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac tumor, or choriocarcinoma, 2 additional cycles of chemotherapy are generally recommended after RPLND.
Is embryonal cell carcinoma curable?
Cells have large nuclei with prominent nucleoli and pale indistinct often vacuolated cytoplasm. Early diagnosis and treatment with platinum based chemotherapy in conjunction with radiotherapy and surgery have high cure rate.
Is embryonal carcinoma hereditary?
Family history of TGCT is among the strongest risk factors for this tumour type. Although this fact and others suggest the existence of genetic predisposition to develop TGCT, no germline mutations conferring high risk of developing TGCT have been identified so far.
Is embryonal carcinoma painful?
However, it is present as a component of almost ninety percent of mixed nonseminomatous germ cell tumours. The average age at diagnosis is 31 years, and typically presents as a testicular lump which may be painful.
Why is embryonal carcinoma called?
Embryonal carcinoma can increase blood levels of a tumor marker protein called alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), as well as human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). Yolk sac carcinoma: These tumors are so named because their cells look like the yolk sac of an early human embryo.
What percentage of testicular tumors are benign?
Treatment isn’t always needed, but it may be surgically removed if it continues to grow or causes pain. Other, much rarer testicular lumps include gonadal stromal tumors, which make up less than 5 percent of adult testicular tumors, according to the ACS. They are typically benign and don’t spread.
Is seminoma benign or malignant?
A seminoma is a germ cell tumor of the testicle or, more rarely, the mediastinum or other extra-gonadal locations. It is a malignant neoplasm and is one of the most treatable and curable cancers, with a survival rate above 95% if discovered in early stages.
Where does intratubular embryonal carcinoma usually appear?
Intratubular embryonal carcinoma often present adjacent to invasive lesion, often with calcifications
When does intratubular germ cell neoplasia become invasive?
Although the term carcinoma in situ has also been used, it is not preferred because intratubular germ cell neoplasia is not an epithelial lesion. Of patients with only intratubular germ cell neoplasia, 50% develop invasive germ cell tumors within 5 years, 67 and ultimately almost all develop invasive tumors.
What kind of tumor is an embryonal carcinoma?
Cite this page: Matoso A. Embryonal carcinoma. PathologyOutlines.com website. https://www.pathologyoutlines.com/topic/testisembryonal.html. Accessed June 6th, 2021. Malignant germ cell tumor composed of primitive epithelial tumor cells recapitulating early stages of embryonic development
Can a testicular scar be a germ cell tumor?
Testicular scar in a patient who had a metastatic germ cell tumor. Such lesions, particularly when associated with intratubular germ cell neoplasia but without any viable invasive germ cell tumor on microscopy, are considered to represent a burnt-out germ cell tumor.