What muscles should be more developed among the group of tetrapods?

The development of a shoulder muscle, the trapezius, from the levator muscles of the gill arches of fishes, as previously discussed, is taken further in tetrapods by the separation of further slips of muscle to form muscles such as sternocleidomastoid, a muscle important for humans in movements of the head and in …

What features are found in tetrapods?

Key Characteristics

  • Four limbs (or descended from ancestors with four limbs)
  • Various adaptations of the skeleton and muscles that enable proper support and movement on land.
  • Adaptations to the cranial bones that allows the head to remain stable while the animal moves.

What is the significance of tetrapods?

It is extremely useful for terrestrial organisms because it allows them to use their hindlimbs efficiently for locomotion on land. Since the aquatic ancestors of fishes and tetrapods had no such connection, one might guess that this feature first evolved serving the function of enabling terrestrial locomotion.

How did the human tongue evolve?

On land, effort is required to ingest food and the tongue appears to have evolved in parallel with the movement of vertebrates from water to land. The precursors to tongue muscle in amniotes have been shown to be derived from the occipital somites.

Are humans tetrapods?

The term tetrapod refers to four-limbed vertebrates, including humans. Elpistostege, from the Late Devonian period of Canada, is now considered the closest fish to tetrapods (4-limbed land animals), which includes humans.

What is the function of Epaxial muscles?

During walking, epaxial muscle activity is appropriate to produce lateral bending and resist long-axis torsion of the trunk and forces produced by extrinsic limb muscles. During trotting, they also stabilize the trunk in the sagittal plane against the inertia of the center of mass.

What animals are tetrapods?

Tetrapods include all land-living vertebrates, such as frogs, turtles, hawks, and lions. The group also includes a number of animals that have returned to life in the water, such as sea turtles, sea snakes, whales and dolphins, seals and sea lions, and extinct groups such as plesiosaurs, ichthyosaurs, and mosasaurs.

Is a dog a tetrapod?

Tetrapods include all those animals with four limbs. Humans are tetrapods, as are dogs and dinosaurs and salamanders.

Are humans Amniotes?

Amniotes are a clade of tetrapod vertebrates comprising the reptiles, birds, and mammals. In eutherian mammals (such as humans), these membranes include the amniotic sac that surrounds the fetus. These embryonic membranes and the lack of a larval stage distinguish amniotes from tetrapod amphibians.

Why are caecilians considered tetrapods?

Despite the lack of external limbs, caecilians, like snakes, are still considered tetrapods because the lack of limbs is considered a derived, secondary characteristic, with the assumption being that they evolved from forms that did have appendages. The name caecilian means “blind,” but most have small eyes.

Do all vertebrates have tongues?

As a consequence most vertebrate animals—amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals—have tongues. Some animals have tongues that are specially adapted for catching prey. For example, chameleons, frogs, pangolins and anteaters have prehensile tongues.

Why did we evolve to have tongues?

Instead, land-dwelling vertebrates evolved a tongue that catches and moves food to the back of the throat for swallowing. It’s relatively well understood how the first fish began to move on land and breathe in air, but how vertebrates switched from feeding via suction to evolve a tongue remains unclear.

What makes up the hyoid apparatus of tetrapods?

Hyoid apparatus of tetrapods consists of a body & 2 or 3 horns (cornua) anchors tongue, provides attachment for some extrinsic muscles of larynx, & is site of attachment of muscles that aid in swallowing Lower jaw may have originated as part of a visceral arch, as in sharks (mandibular cartilage)

What kind of apparatus does a hyoid have?

Source: http://www.liberty.edu/academics/registrar/courses00/biol418pa.htm Hyoid apparatus of tetrapods consists of a body & 2 or 3 horns (cornua) anchors tongue, provides attachment for some extrinsic muscles of larynx, & is site of attachment of muscles that aid in swallowing Lower jaw

What is the function of the hyoid bone in an elephant?

function in elephants In elephant: Sound production and water storage …in a boxlike structure, the hyoid apparatus, that supports the tongue and the voice box. Elephants have only five bones in the hyoid apparatus, and the gap formed by the missing bones is filled by muscles, tendons, and ligaments.

What is the hyoid apparatus of a leopard gecko?

Hyoid apparatus of a leopard gecko, Euplepharis maculatus, with attached tracheal rings (ventral view, anterior towards the right) The hyoid apparatus is the collective term used in veterinary anatomy for the bones which suspend the tongue and larynx.