What is icao 4444?

ICAO Procedures. [ICAO Doc 4444, ¶15.2. 2.1] If an aircraft is unable to continue the flight in accordance with its ATC clearance, a revised clearance shall be obtained, whenever possible, prior to initiating any action. [ICAO Doc 4444, ¶15.2.

What is PANS-ATM?

PANS-ATM: Procedures for Air Navigation Services – Air Traffic Management (ICAO Doc. 4444) PANS-TRG: Procedures for Air Navigation Services – Training (ICAO Doc. 9868) PANS-AD (PANS-Aerodrome, ICAO Doc 9981)

What is reduced runway separation minima?

Reduced Runway Separation Minima should not be applied between departing and preceding landing aircraft. When applying the reduction between two departing aircraft minimum separation should exist imme- diately after departure of the second aircraft. • Traffic information should be given to the succeeding aircraft.

What is ADS C in aviation?

As ADS-C is a contract between the aircraft and air traffic control (ATC) for regular position reporting, the two-way methodology agreed by ICAO and ATC transmits position reports of the aircraft on an agreed specified frequency, typically between 10 and 14 mins, but moving to shorter intervals of 3.2 minutes to reduce …

What is the difference between pans-ops and Terps?

PANS-Ops will define MSA as a minimum SECTOR altitude. TERPS will define the same MSA as a minimum SAFE/SECTOR altitude. Both criteria define this as the lowest altitude that ensures at least 300m/1000ft of terrain and obstacle separation within 25NM from the NAVAID or waypoint defined.

What are ICAO documents?

Introduction. ICAO SARPS (Standards and Recommended Practices) for each area of ICAO responsibility are contained in 19 Annexes. All are subject to regular amendment and the detail in respect of many of them is contained in publications in the numbered ICAO Document Series.

What are the 3 basic contract types for ads-C?

There are three basic contract types; the Periodic Contract, the Event Contract and the Demand Contract. There are also a number of “on-request” information groups within the FANS 1/A ADS functionality that can be added to the Basic Group for downlinking as part of an ADS-C report.

Is ads-C space based?

What exactly is the difference between space-based ADS-B and ADS-C? ADS-C is a two-way system that provides comprehensive information critical to flight safety (see graphic below). In contrast, space-based ADS-B is a one-way broadcast of only the position of the airplane.

When must you file a VFR flight plan?

VFR flight plans must be closed within 30 minutes after your estimated time of arrival. They are not closed automatically. Failing to do so may activate needless search and rescue operations. Flight Following, on the other hand, may be thought of as having ATC on the flight with you.

What are circling minimums?

A “circling” approach is a term used to describe the circling minima you will find on an ILS, RNAV, VOR, LOC, BC or GPS approach. Circling approaches always have higher minimums than any other approach because the pilot must maintain visual contact with the runway throughout the entire maneuver.